The Act stipulated that researchers could not be prosecuted for cruelty, but that the animal must be anesthetized unless the anesthesia would interfere with the point of the experiment. Each animal could be used only once, although several procedures were permitted if they were regarded as part of the same experiment.
The animal had to be killed when the study was over, unless doing so would frustrate the object of the experiment. Prosecutions could take place only with the approval of the Home Secretary. At the time of the Brown Dog affair, this was Aretas Akers-Douglas, who was unsympathetic to the anti-vivisectionist cause. In the early 20th century, Ernest Starling, Professor of Physiology at University College London, and his brother-in-law William Bayliss, were using vivisection on dogs to determine whether the nervous system controls pancreatic secretions, as postulated by Ivan Pavlov.
Bayliss had held a license to practice vivisection since and had taught physiology since The men knew that the pancreas produces digestive juices in response to increased acidity in the duodenum and jejunum, because of the arrival of chyme there. By severing the duodenal and jejunal nerves in anesthetized dogs, while leaving the blood vessels intact, then introducing acid into the duodenum and jejunum, they discovered that the process is not mediated by a nervous response, but by a new type of chemical reflex.
They named the chemical messenger secretin, because it is secreted by the intestinal lining into the bloodstream, stimulating the pancreas on circulation. Bayliss and Starling had also used vivisection on anesthetized dogs to discover peristalsis in They went on to discover a variety of other important physiological phenomena and principles, many of which were based on their experimental work involving animal vivisection.
Starling and Bayliss's lectures had been attended by Swedish feminists and anti-vivisection activists Lizzy Lind of Hageby and Leisa Katherine Schartau, who had known each other since childhood. The two women visited the Pasteur Institute in Paris in , a center of animal experimentation, and were shocked by the rooms full of caged animals given diseases by the researchers.
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They founded the Anti-Vivisection Society of Sweden when they returned home, and enrolled as students at the London School of Medicine for Women in , a vivisection-free college that had visiting arrangements with other London colleges, to gain medical training for their anti-vivisectionist campaigns. He was first used in a vivisection in December by Starling, who cut open his abdomen and ligated the pancreatic duct. For the next two months he lived in a cage, until Starling and Bayliss used him again for two procedures on 2 February , the day the Swedish women were present.
Editor's note: Because I found some of the parts following three paragraphs upsetting, I'm making readers aware of this, in the event you want to skip over the next several paragraphs. Outside the lecture room before the students arrived, according to testimony Starling and others gave in court, Starling cut the dog open again to inspect the results of the previous surgery, which took about 45 minutes, after which he clamped the wound with forceps and handed the dog over to Bayliss.
Brown Dog Statue
Bayliss cut a new opening in the dog's neck to expose the lingual nerves of the salivary glands, to which he attached electrodes. The aim was to stimulate the nerves with electricity to demonstrate that salivary pressure was independent of blood pressure. The dog was then carried to the lecture theatre, stretched on his back on an operating board, with his legs tied to the board, his head clamped and his mouth muzzled.
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According to Bayliss, the dog had been given a morphine injection earlier in the day, then was anesthetized during the procedure with six fluid ounces of alcohol, chloroform and ether ACE , delivered from an ante-room with a tube in his trachea, via a pipe hidden behind the bench on which the men were working. The Swedish students disputed that the dog had been adequately anesthetized.
They said the dog had appeared conscious during the procedure, had tried to lift himself off the board, and that there was no smell of anesthesia or the usual hissing sound of the apparatus. Other students said the dog had not struggled, but had merely twitched. In front of around 60 students, Bayliss stimulated the nerves with electricity for half an hour, but was unable to demonstrate his point. The dog was then handed to a student, Henry Dale, a future Nobel laureate, who removed the dog's pancreas, then killed him with a knife through the heart.
This became a point of embarrassment during the libel trial, when Bayliss's laboratory assistant, Charles Scuttle, testified that the dog had been killed with chloroform or the ACE mixture. After Scuttle's testimony Dale told the court that he had, in fact, used a knife. His attention was drawn to the account of the brown dog. The Cruelty to Animals Act forbade the use of an animal in more than one experiment, yet it appeared that the brown dog had been used by Starling to perform surgery on the pancreas, used again by him when he opened the dog to inspect the results of the previous surgery, and used for a third time by Bayliss to study the salivary glands.
The diary said of the procedures on the brown dog:. Today's lecture will include a repetition of a demonstration which failed last time. A large dog, stretched on its back on an operation board, is carried into the lecture-room by the demonstrator and the laboratory attendant. Its legs are fixed to the board, its head is firmly held in the usual manner, and it is tightly muzzled.
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There is a large incision in the side of the neck, exposing the gland. The animal exhibits all signs of intense suffering; in his struggles, he again and again lifts his body from the board, and makes powerful attempts to get free. The allegations of repeated use and inadequate anesthesia represented prima facie violations of the Cruelty to Animals Act. In addition, the diary said:.
According to Mason, Coleridge decided there was no point in relying on a prosecution under the Act, which he regarded as deliberately obstructive. Instead he gave an angry speech about the dog on 1 May to the annual meeting of the National Anti-Vivisection Society at St James's Hall in Piccadilly, attended by 2, - 3, people. Mason writes that support and apologies for absence were sent by writers Jerome K. Jerome, Thomas Hardy and Rudyard Kipling. Bayliss and his friends tell us in Heaven's name what torture is.
Bayliss demanded a public apology, and when by 12 May it had failed to materialize he issued a writ for libel. Ernest Starling decided not to sue. There were queues 30 yards long outside the courthouse. Bayliss's counsel, Rufus Isaacs, called Starling as his first witness.
Starling admitted that he had broken the law by using the dog twice, but said that he had done so to avoid sacrificing two dogs. Bayliss testified that the dog had been given one-and-a-half grains of morphia earlier in the day, then six ounces of alcohol, chloroform and ether, delivered from an ante room to a tube connected to the dog's trachea.
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Bayliss said the tubes were fragile, and that had the dog been struggling they would have broken. A veterinarian, Alfred Sewell, said the system Bayliss was using was unlikely to be adequate, but other witnesses, including Frederick Hobday of the Royal Veterinary College, disagreed; there was even a claim that Bayliss had used too much anesthesia, which is why the dog had failed to respond to the electrical stimulation.
Bayliss said the dog had been suffering from chorea, a disease that causes involuntary spasm, and that any movement Lind of Hageby and Schartau had seen was not purposive. Four students, three women and a man, were called by Bayliss's counsel and testified that the dog had appeared to be unconscious. This was the result of a decision taken by the then Battersea Metropolitan Borough Council, the previous Council having supported the erection of the memorial.
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In , 19, animals suffered and died in British laboratories. During 3,, experiments were performed on live animals in Great Britain. Today, animals are burned, blinded, irradiated, poisoned and subjected to countless other horrifyingly cruel experiments in Great Britain. Site provided by the Greater London Council. Sculptor Nicola Hicks. Unveiled on 12th December Also in memory of the dogs vivisected at the same place during the year Men and women of England, how long shall these things be? See our page for the original statue for a description of the Brown Dog affair.
This ended when, in the original statue was removed from its site just to the south of the Park and destroyed. Vivisection continued and so did the opposition to it. The sculptor, Nicola Hicks, based the statue on her own terrier, Brock, and it was erected in the Park in , but not here. The statue was first erected behind the Pump House where it was unveiled by actress Geraldine James fresh from the success of Jewel in the Crown.
Due to the water in the background we think the first photo on Advocacy shows it in this site.
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In it was removed, apparently due to a park renovation scheme, and then re-erected at its current site, in The memorial is beside a narrow path through a small wooded area immediately to the east of the Old English Garden. We normally take a long shot to help locate the memorial but this one is surrounded by trees. So Instead we took a photo showing how the plinth has been carved with leaf shapes.
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